The ancient Greeks were active seafarers seeking opportunities for trade and founding new independent cities at coastal sites across the Mediterranean Sea. In 2007, the Port of Thessaloniki handled 14,373,245 tonnes of cargo and 222,824 TEU's. This is not the only explanation, though; it was also said to have been named after the town of Aegae or queen Aegea. Although some species are defined as protected or threatened under EU legislation, several illegal species such as the molluscs Pinna nobilis, Charonia tritonis and Lithophaga lithophaga, can be bought in restaurants and fish markets around Greece. [14], The subsequent Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean Sea have given rise to the general term Aegean civilization. By the 1930s, Greece and Turkey had about resumed their present-day borders. Multiple ports are located along the Greek and Turkish coasts of the Aegean Sea. Between the two countries, there are political disputes over several aspects of political control over the Aegean space, including the size of territorial waters, air control and the delimitation of economic rights to the continental shelf. When people think of Greek history, they tend to skip more or less directly from the conquests of Alexander the Great to the rise of the Roman empire. Analysis[10] of the Aegean during 1991 and 1992 revealed three distinct water masses: The climate of the Aegean Sea largely reflects the climate of Greece and Western Turkey, which is to say, predominately Mediterranean. The most widely exported item of trade in the Aegean world and the most important source of income for the Mycenaean civilization was olive oil The fall of Myceanaean civilization around 1200 B.C.E. The Aegean Sea [Greek: Egeo Pelagos] is part of the Mediterranean Sea located between Greece and Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). Today, the Greek islands are divided into seven groups: Northeastern Aegean, Euboea, Sporades, Cyclades, Saronic (or Argo-Saronic) Islands, Dodecanese and Crete. The rocks making up the floor of the Aegean are mainly limestone, though often greatly altered by volcanic activity that has convulsed the region in relatively recent geologic times. The rugged geography also afforded these city-states a terrain that favored defense and allowed them to defeat more powerful opponents. According to Greek Mythology, it took its name after Aegeus or Aegeas, the father of Theseus, who threw himself and died in the sea because he thought that his son was dead. 43; Serv. The Anatolian peninsula marks the eastern boundary of the sea, while the Greek mainland marks the west. The Aegean Sea [Greek: Egeo Pelagos] is part of the Mediterranean Sea located between Greece and Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). By the 6th century BC several cities had emerged as dominant in Greek affairs: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and Thebes, of which Athens, Sparta, and Corinth were closest to the Aegean Sea. The historical region of Macedonia also borders the sea, to the north. Tourism to the Aegean islands contributes a significant portion of tourism in Greece, especially since the second half of the 20th century. Greek civilization began in 1750 BC north of the Mediterranean Sea in Europe. Late glacial-Holocene evolution of the Aegean Sea. As of 2007, the Port of Thessaloniki was the second-largest container port in Greece after the port of Piraeus, making it one of the busiest ports in Greece. The certification is awarded for beaches and marinas meeting strict quality standards including environmental protection, water quality, safety and services criteria. Before that time, at the peak of the last ice age (about 18,000 years ago) sea levels everywhere were 130 metres lower, and there were large well-watered coastal plains instead of much of the northern Aegean. After Alexander the Great's death, his empire was divided among his generals. The Second Bulgarian Empire achieved similar success along, again, the northern and western coasts, under Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria. [36] Alongside Greece, Turkey has also been successful in developing resort areas and attracting large number of tourists,[37] contributing to tourism in Turkey. Add your answer and earn points. [16] The Minoan period saw extensive trade between Crete, Aegean, and Mediterranean settlements, particularly the Near East. The sea also influenced the evolution of Greek society, and since they were surrounded by water, they became seafarers and established colonies that spread Greek civilization throughout the Mediterranean world. [39], Greece and Turkey both take part in the Blue Flag beach certification programme of the Foundation for Environmental Education. The larger islands have some fertile valleys and plains. In the following centuries, the Aegean Sea continued to help the Greek civilization flourish serving an important function in trade as well as in war. [34] The islands of Santorini, Crete, Lesbos, Delos, and Mykonos are common tourist destinations. The Seljuq Turks, under the Seljuk Empire, invaded the Byzantine Empire in 1068, from which they annexed almost all the territories of Anatolia, including the east coast of the Aegean Sea, during the reign of Alp Arslan, the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire. "Drainage Basin of the Mediterranean Sea", "World Weather Information Service – Europe", "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Genel İstatistik Verileri", "Ancient Crete – Classics – Oxford Bibliographies – obo", "Maritime transport – Goods (gross weight) – Annual data – All ports – by direction", "A Way of Life Drowned by Greece's Crisis", "As stocks deplete, Greek fishermen scrap boats and livelihoods", "Αλέξανδρος Βασιλικός: Ο τουρισμός είναι υπόθεση όλων μας", "Santorini's popularity soars but locals say it has hit saturation point", "Overwhelmed: Greece the latest country to be overrun by tourists", "Where to Raise the Sails, or Just a Glass", "FEE – Foundation for Environmental Education", "Blue Flag Beaches in Turkey | Go Turkey Tourism", "Cultural Portal of the Aegean Archipelago", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aegean_Sea&oldid=998980260, Instances of Lang-el using second unnamed parameter, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Articles with Serbian-language sources (sr), Articles lacking reliable references from December 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map, Articles using infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Articles containing Bulgarian-language text, Articles containing Serbo-Croatian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2019, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In the Dardanelles: A line joining Kum Kale (26°11′E) and, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 23:01. The Ottoman Empire then gained control of all the Aegean coast with the exception of Crete, which was a Venetian colony until 1669. [3], Late Latin authors referred the name Aegaeus to Aegeus, whom they said to have jumped into that sea (instead of jumping from the Athenian acropolis, as told by some Greek authors). Meanwhile, the Bulgarian Empire threatened Byzantine control of Northern Greece and the Aegean coast to the south. Picture-postcard places, delicious food and vibrant nightlife are sure to become memories that you’ll cherish forever. It covers about 214,000 sq. Deucalion and Pyrrha repopulate the land once t… Mediterranean. However, their territory would later be threatened by the Early Muslim conquests initiated by Muhammad in the 7th century. An estimated 2 million tourists visit Santorini annually. With wealth from trade, Crete’s people built paved roads, aqueducts, sewers and irrigation systems. Issues include the delimitation of territorial waters, national airspace, exclusive economic zones and flight information regions. The Greek War of Independence allowed a Greek state on the coast of the Aegean from 1829 onwards. It is a country surrounded by water and the sea which has always played an important role in its history. The Aegean Islands can be divided into several island groups, including the Dodecanese, the Cyclades, the Sporades, the Saronic islands and the North Aegean Islands, as well as Crete and its surrounding islands. Crete commanded the sea lanes of the Eastern Mediterranean and functioned as a forward base and haven for Muslim corsair fleets that ravaged the Byzantine-controlled shores of the Aegean Sea. A number of issues concerning sovereignty within the Aegean Sea are disputed between Greece and Turkey. There is a considerable difference between fish catches between the pelagic and demersal zones;[24] with respect to pelagic fisheries, the catches from the northern, central and southern Aegean area groupings are dominated, respectively, by anchovy, horse mackerels, and boops. Along with the Greeks, Thracians lived among the northern coast. The Aegean Sea would later come to be under the control, albeit briefly, of the Kingdom of Macedonia. It is a wonderful method to get to the core of Ancient Greek culture: a fascinating dive into a magical sea of myths. Nine out of twelve of the Administrative regions of Greece border the sea, along with the Turkish provinces of Edirne, Canakkale, Balıkesir, Izmir, Aydın and Muğla to the east of the sea. One chain extends across the sea to Chios, another extends across Euboea to Samos, and a third extends across the Peloponnese and Crete to Rhodes, dividing the Aegean from the Mediterranean. The Supplanting of Religious / Mythopoeic World-Views with Rational Thought As civilization spread to the opposite side of Mediterranean Sea into Greece, a new means of explaining the world and man’s place within it began to emerge. The Romans conquered the area under the Roman Empire, and later the Byzantine Empire held it against advances by the First Bulgarian Empire. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. Of the main islands in the Aegean Sea, two belong to Turkey – Bozcaada (Tenedos) and Gökçeada (Imbros); the rest belong to Greece. Several seas are contained within the Aegean Sea; the Thracian Sea is a section of the Aegean located to the north, the Icarian Sea to the east, the Myrtoan Sea to the west, while the Sea of Crete is the southern section. [32], Greece is one of the most visited countries in Europe and the world with over 33 million visitors in 2018,[33] and the tourism industry around a quarter of Greece's Gross Domestic Product. The civilization of Ancient Greece emerged into the light of world history in the 8th century BC. An Island Civilization Another civilization developed on one of the islands off the coast of southern Greece. When they were first occupied, the present-day islands including Milos with its important obsidian production were probably still connected to the mainland. Mykonos and Santorini, especially, have made Cyclades even more famous, having earned their spots among the top tourist destinations in the world! The Archaic period followed the Greek Dark Ages in the 8th century BC. The sea reaches a maximum depth of 3,544 meters, to the east of Crete. The Mycenaeans introduced several innovations in the fields of engineering, architecture and military infrastructure, while trade over vast areas of the Mediterranean, including the Aegean, was essential for the Mycenaean economy. Cycladic Greek Civilization. Greek Peninsula: What was included in the territory of the Greeks? This comes as no surprise if you think of everything that makes these two islands so uniquely beautiful. It was the civilization of Greece, from the archaic period of the 8th/6th centuries BC to 146 BC. The Greeks referred to themselves as the “Hellenes”, and classical Greek civilization is therefore sometimes lab… [17]. As a culture (as opposed to a political force), Greek civilization lasted longer still, continuing right to the end of the ancient world.Philip of Macedon’s de… The Minoan Civilization (2700-1500 BCE) developed on the island of Crete, and rapidly became the dominant sea power in the region. [25] To address these concerns, Greek fishermen have been offered a compensation by the government. The small sea the is EAST of Greece. [35] However, concerns relating to overtourism have arisen in recent years, such as issues of inadequate infrastructure and overcrowding. Greece is a country surrounded by water, and the sea has always played an important role in its history. When Theseus returned, he forgot these instructions, and Aegeus thinking his son to have died then drowned himself in the sea.[4]. In the north of the Aegean Sea, the climate is instead classified as Cold semi-arid (BSk), which feature cooler summers than Hot-summer Mediterranean climates. The Dardanelles and the Bosphoros are known as the Turkish Straits. The civilization of Mycenaean Greeks perished with the collapse of Bronze Age culture in the eastern Mediterranean, to be followed by the so-called Greek Dark Ages. Euboea, the second-largest island in Greece, is located in the Aegean, despite being administered as part of Central Greece. That island is Crete. The Thracian Sea and the Myrtoan Sea are subdivisions of the Aegean Sea. Philip II and his son Alexander the Great led a series of conquests that led not only to the unification of the Greek mainland and the control of the Aegean Sea under his rule, but also the destruction of the Achaemenid Empire. To the east of the Greek peninsula, the Aegean Sea is home to hundreds of small islands, populated from early times. tylerc960 tylerc960 02/28/2017 History High School Which of the following is the earliest known Greek civilization, developed as a sea trading power, and was centered on the island of Crete? Surrounded by hills and mountains, the cities of ancient Greece nestled in the valleys of that land. During the archaic era (c. 750–480 BC), many Aegean islands were powerful and wealthy, with Naxos being the most prosperous among them. [13], The current coastline dates back to about 4000 BC. Aegeus had told Theseus to put up white sails when returning if he was successful in killing the Minotaur. The geography of Greece made it very unique and very powerful. The Greeks, or Hellenes, are the natives of Greece and other countries around the Mediterranean Sea like Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, and Egypt. In ancient times, navigation through the sea was easier than travelling across the rough terrain of the Greek mainland, and to some extent, the coastal areas of Anatolia. Ancient Greek civilization, the period following Mycenaean civilization (which ended about 1200 BCE) lasted up … Greece is in southeastern Europe and consists of a mainland and an archipelago [chain of islands]. The Aegean Islands, which almost all belong to Greece, can be divided into seven groups: Many of the Aegean islands or island chains, are geographically extensions of the mountains on the mainland. [38] The ancient city of Troy, a World Heritage Site, is on the Turkish coast of the Aegean. Many of Western Civilization's symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from Ancient Greek Mythology ... Who was the Greek who developed the lever and pulley, pi, … The Greek mainland is a peninsula which extends into the Mediterranean Sea. [21] Piraeus is also the commercial hub of Greek shipping. It divided the country into a large number of isolated cantons where small independent states developed, leading to the emergence of republics such as Athens, Sparta, and Thebes.Greece’s climate is varied, with sudden co… Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilizations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states and the Phoenicians. Both of these civilizations are covered by the general term Aegean Civilization. The Rhodope Range, another high altitude mountain, spreads across East Macedonia and Thrace. kilometers and its maximum depth is 3,543 meters, east of Crete. The Venetians created the maritime state of the Duchy of the Archipelago, which included all the Cyclades except Mykonos and Tinos. While each island is beautiful in its own way, the best-known island group in Greece is probably the cluster of Cyclades which lies in the heart of the Aegean Sea. [27] A total of five UNESCO World Heritage sites are located the Aegean Islands; these include the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse on Patmos,[28] the Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos in Samos,[29] the Nea Moni of Chios,[30] the island of Delos,[31] and the Medieval City of Rhodes. The below table lists climate conditions of some major Aegean cities: Numerous Greek and Turkish settlements are located along their mainland coast, as well as on towns on the Aegean islands. Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα, Ellada, ), officially the Hellenic Republic and also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southeast Europe.Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by Thessaloniki.Situated on the southern tip of the Balkans, Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Which of the following is the earliest known Greek civilization, developed as a sea trading power, and was centered on the island of Crete? Greece became divided into small self-governing communities, and adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. People could sail from Greece to Anatolia almost without losing sight of land. Ancient Greece (Greece and Near East, C. 3300 BC- 31 BC). These issues are known as the Aegean dispute. (Unpubl.). The Macedonian Wars were a series of conflicts fought by the Roman Republic and its Greek allies in the eastern Mediterranean against several different major Greek kingdoms. The German invasion resulted in the Axis occupation of Greece. The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands, flourishing from around 3000 to 1450 BC before a period of decline, finally ending at around 1100 BC. The Dardanelles are located to the northeast of the sea. The port of Piraeus in Athens is the chief port in Greece, the largest passenger port in Europe[18][19] and the third largest in the world,[20] servicing about 20 million passengers annually. Several seas are contained within the Aegean Sea; the Thracian Sea is a section of the Aegean located to the north, the Icarian Sea to the east, the Myrtoan Sea to the west, while the Sea of Crete is the southern section. The Italian war aim was to establish a Greek puppet state, which would permit the Italian annexation of the Sporades and the Cyclades islands in the Aegean Sea, to be administered as a part of the Italian Aegean Islands. The Minoan civilization was the first well-known literate civilization in Europe and was preceded by the Mycenean one (c. 1600–1100 BC), which arose in the Peloponnese. Southern Aegean beaches on the Turkish coast include Muğla, with 102 beaches awarded with the blue flag, along with İzmir and Aydın, who have 49 and 30 beaches awarded respectively. 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